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Citing music: MLA style

DVDs and videocassettes

14.279 DVDs and videocassettes

Citations of video recordings, like citations of sound recordings, will vary according to the nature of the material. Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number. Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title. Note that in the Monty Python example, the citation is of material original to the 2001 edition, so the original release date of the film (1975) is omitted.

      7. Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy,” Friends, season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003), DVD.
      8. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.
Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python
      and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD.     Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia
      Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.
Handel, George Frideric. Messiah. Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chamber Chorus, Robert Shaw. Performed
      December 19, 1987. Ansonia Station,     NY: Video Artists International, 1988. Videocassette (VHS), 141

See Chicago Manual Online: 14.279 DVDs and videocassettes

Online multimedia

Citations of online multimedia must thoroughly identify the material cited by incorporating the elements discussed and exemplified throughout this section; it is never enough simply to cite an electronic file name or URL, though this information should be included as well. If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed. (See also 14.4–13.) If the material is a recording of a speech or other performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source. Whether to list information about the original or the digitized copy first will depend on the information available and is usually up to the author. Include an indication of the source type (e.g., “video”) and length. Note the idiosyncratic capitalization and spacing in the second example, preserved as an aid to identifying the source; this approach, if used at all, should be reserved for sources that have no ties to any publishing body (and any outright errors should be indicated in the text or note; see also 13.59). See also 14.277, 14.198. For an example of a podcast, see 14.221.

      1. A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906, MPEG video, 2:19,
      2. “HOROWITZ AT CARNEGIE HALL 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55,” YouTube video, 5:53, from a performance televised by CBS on September 22, 1968, posted by “hubanj,” January 9, 2009,
Harwood, John. “The Pros and Cons of Biden.” New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008.
Pollan, Michael. “Michael Pollan Gives a Plant’s-Eye View.” Filmed March 2007. TED video, 17:31. Posted February 2008.

See Chicago Manual Online: 14.280 Online multimedia